Vlan is a networking concept to logically separate traffic in a network. When connected to a network you can add a tag in front of the traffic coming from your device so you can communicate only with devices using the same tag. If you want to communicate with devices using other tags you need to use a more "clever" device such as a router. The benefits are that you can separate traffic at your will (e.g SSIDs, Services, Departments, Users etc) and apply specific addressing, routing and communication rules.
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