I have got an exchange 2010 sitting on a sbs 2011, I have recently got a meraki mx64. Whenever I am connecting my workstation with the meraki mx64 the outlook stops working. Though I can access my files in the sbs 2011 server.
you can whitelist the device for testing to confirm if there is any security filtering enabled that is blocking the traffic. If it works properly when whitelisted, review your layer 3, content filtering and layer 7 FW rule configuration making sure it is not blocking outlook traffic. Lastly, as suggested you can take the Wireshark packet capture.
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