VLANS allow you to share the same physical networking gear across your entire environment while keeping sensitive or dangerous communications segmented. Like keeping HR traffic separate from all other users for privacy or ensuring systems IT are testing in the lab won't effect the Finance Team. You can also group systems that communicate with each other a lot into the same VLAN so that those conversations don't interfere with the rest of the systems on the network. Much like putting all the "chatty kathys" in the same "virtual break room" to share gossip.
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